Milestones in passenger transportation

Milestones on the way to more mobility and safety


  • The world’s first horse-drawn omnibuses (“carrosses à cinq sols”) enter service in Paris, although they are taken out of service again after just a few years.


  • Draisine, also known as ‘running machine’ (Fig. From approx. 1820). It was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais in Mannheim in 1817. Being the first means of transport to make use of the two-wheeler principle, the Laufmaschine is regarded as the archetype of the bicycle.


  • The first horse-drawn streetcar enters service in Europe between Montbrison and Montrond in France.


  • Foot pedal drive on frontwheel: Michaudine/velocipede


  • Opening ot the first underground in the world in London.


  • First use of solid rubber tires and spoon Bicycle, general brakes


  • Installation of the first traffic light system in the world in London. It was operated by gaslight and exploded after just a short time.


  • Michaux works with Perreaux to develop the first bicycle with an auxiliary engine.


  • Jaromír Freiherr von Mundy founds the "Wiener Freiwillige Rettungsgesellschaft." (Vienna Volunteer Rescue Society)


  • Commissioning of the first electric street lighting in Germany in Nuremberg.


  • Riding carriage from Daimler (first motorcycle)


  • The German inventor Carl Benz files the “Benz Patent-Motorwagen Number 1”, heralding the age of the modern internal combustion engine automobile.


  • J.B. Dunlop pneumatic tyre (re-invention).


  • Before the invention of the automobile, horse-drawn vehicles were the preferred choice for regional transport of goods.


  • In Paris, Panhard and Lavassor start on the construction of a commercial vehicle


  • Advertisement for the first mass-produced motorcycle in the world.


  • First regular service in Germany with a fuel-driven bus between Siegen and Netphen.
  • Ogden Bolton (USA) files first patent for “new and useful improvement in electrical bicycles”


  • Gottlieb Daimler sells his first motorized truck constructed by Wilhelm Maybach


  • Carl Benz presents his first truck
  • Opening of the Paris Metro on the occasion of the World Exhibition.


  • A total of 16 manufacturers in Europe build a total of 39 trucks this year


  • British engineer Frederick W. Lanchester invents the disc brake and files a patent for it.
  • German inventor Otto Schulze develops the eddy-current speedometer for road vehicles.


  • Heinrich Büssing founds his company in Hanover and launches the mass production of trucks


  • The oldest cycle path in Germany is the Offenbacher Alleenring with a structurally separated cycle path system, which was constructed in 1907.
  • Construction of the oldest bicycle path in Germany, the Offenbacher Alleenring, begins in 1907; the path features a segregated cycling facility.


  • In the then German Reich a single driving licence is introduced, which is valid for the entire country (German Motor Vehicles Act).


  • Büssing constructs a truck with a trailer attached (articulated truck) for long materials


  • Road markings to separate different road lanes are invented - nowadays they form the basis for lane keeping systems.


  • The first electric traffic signal with red and green lights is installed in Salt Lake City, Utah.


  • Iron tires are banned in the German Reich to limit damage to the road surface; all trucks are fitted with rubber tires


  • Doctor Eric Gardner manufactures the precursor to a helmet for motorcyclists, made of shellac and canvas.
  • The First World War necessitates high-volume truck manufacture; manufacturers increasingly switch to mass production and replaceable parts
  • The traffic light installation, which was erected on 5th August 1914 in Cleveland, USA, is the first regular traffic light in the world.


  • In 1915, the Autoped Company manufactures a pedal scooter powered by a combustion engine or electric motor; Krupp acquires the license and continues producing the model under the name “Krupp-Roller” in Germany from 1919 to 1922 (the first e-scooter).


  • In the USA, the first automatic traffic signal is patented. In Detroit, the first traffic control tower is installed at an intersection.


  • 1920s The first crossing guard units were formed to ensure safe street crossings in front of schools in St. Paul, Minnesota, and Omaha, Nebraska, among other cities in the US. Germany did not have official school crossing guards until 1953.
  • Engineers from the Radio Air Service at the McCook air force test base in Dayton, Ohio, present the first driverless, remote-controlled automobile to the general public.
  • Europe's first tri-color light signal system is presented in Paris.


  • The Duesenberg Model A is the first vehicle to be equipped with a hydraulic braking system.
  • Engineers working for the Radio Air Service at the McCook aviation experimentation station in Dayton, Ohio, unveil to the public the first driverless, radio-controlled car.
  • The first road markings in the small English town of Sutton Coldfield to remove an accident black spot.


  • Installation of Germany’s first threecoloured traffic light system in Hamburg.
  • Installation of Europe’s first threecoloured traffic light systems in Paris.


  • Introduction of the four-wheel compressed-air brake by Knorr


  • Chain drive triumphs over belt drive.
  • 1924 Patent for pedestrian safety. A collision with a pedestrian would cause a type of scoop to move upwards, preventing the pedestrian from slipping from the vehicle onto the road after the collision and being run over. Then the pedestrian is caught by a net.


  • The organization Deutscher KraffahrzeugÜberwachungsverein e.V. (now DEKRA) is founded in Berlin.


  • Accident statistics are published for the first time in the UK.


  • The overland transport regulation enters force in Germany; this sets out the legal differences between passenger and goods transport on roads
  • The League of Nations in Geneva adopts the "Convention concerning the Unification of Road Signs".


  • The first pedestrian traffc lights in Europe are installed in Copenhagen.


  • Reflective road studs ("cat's eyes") are invented by British inventor Percy Shaw.


  • The telescopic fork for BMW motorbikes is launched (still the most common design today).


  • The Berlinbased manufacturer Gaubschat unveils a passenger road train with corridor connection.
  • Installation of Europe’s first pedestrian lights in Berlin.


  • In May, the American magazine “Popular Science” reports on the automated traffic of the future for the first time.
  • 1938 DKW introduces the 125 ccm cubic capacity class as standard, followed by the development of larger capacity classes after the Second World War


  • French tyre manufacturer Michelin has the first radial tyre patented, which is launched in 1949 under the brand name Michelin-X.


  • At the Muroc test site, located in the Mojave desert in the USA, Colonel John Paul Stapp carries out the first test on himself as part of his "deceleration project". This involves him subjecting himself to multiple rapid deceleration tests on a rocket sled until he reaches his limits.


  • First road markings with broken white lines in London.


  • Series production of the “Unimog” (“Universal-Motor-Gerät” – universal motorized machine) is launched


  • 1949 The pedestrian crosswalk or “zebra crossing” appears internationally for the first time in the Geneva Protocol on Road Signs and Signals.


  • Germany implements its first accident prevention measures.


  • In collaboration with the Indiana State Police, a team of accident researchers led by engineer Hugh de Haven in the USA start the first comprehensive analysis of car accidents.
  • Walter Linderer files a patent for an airbag.
  • Periodical technical inspection (PTI) for motor vehicles is introduced in Germany.
  • The Bundesanstalt für Straßenbau (BASt) is founded; it is renamed in 1965 as the Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (German Federal Highway Research Institute).
  • The Hungarian Béla Barényi files a patent for his concept of a "rigid passenger cell with front and rear crumple zones at the front and rear."


  • Kässbohrer Fahrzeugwerke unveils the first modern articulated bus with a wide corridor between the front and rear carriage.
  • The first zebra crossings are marked out in Germany.


  • Advertising poster for the Zündapp KS 601 ("Green Elephant").
  • The Federal Office for the Long-Distance Carriage of Goods in Germany is established
  • In Germany legislation introduces the pedestrian crossing nationally for the first time in Section 26 of the road traffic regulations.


  • German road accident statistics
  • The medical-psychological examination (MPU) of aptitude to drive is introduced in Germany.


  • German vehicle regulations (Straßenverkehrs-Zulassungsordnung) stipulate "fitness-to-drive-assessments" for the first time. From 1960, they are called "medical-psychological examinations".
  • Publication of the first version of the UNECE Recommendation on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
  • The world’s first mobile traffic radar unit is deployed for speed monitoring.
  • At the International Police Exhibition in Essen, Telefunken presents the first traffic radar device to monitor a vehicle's speed.


  • A 50 km/h speed limit in built-up areas is introduced in Germany.


  • The central index of traffic offenders in Flensburg begins its work.


  • Volvo engineer Nils Ivar Bolin files a patent for the three-point safety belt.
  • With the Mercedes 220 S/SE, Mercedes-Benz launches the first car equipped with a safety passenger cell.
  • Hood ornaments are generally forbidden in Germany. This ban does not last long. Today, hood ornaments have to yield. So the Mercedes star bends, and the Rolls-Royce “Spirit of Ecstasy” retracts abruptly at the slightest touch.


  • Coordinated rescue service launched in Germany.
  • Certified safety cabs are launched in Sweden


  • The inspection sticker is introduced as proof that a main inspection has been carried out.
  • In the GDR the traffic psychologist Karl Peglau invents the red-green pedestrian lights together with the traffic-light man.


  • Béla Barényi files a patent for his "safety steering shaft for motor vehicles".
  • With the "Niki" model, Storchenmühle launches the world's first child car seat. Britax Römer enters the car seat business in 1966 with “Lufki” (photo).


  • Luigi Locati presents an overview of motor vehicle safety, making a distinction between active and passive safety for the first time.
  • Priority for pedestrians on zebra crossings is introduced into the German Road Traffic Act on 1st June 1964.


  • The consumer advocate Ralph Nader publishes his book “Unsafe at Any Speed” and draws attention to glaring safety faults in US-American vehicles back then.
  • Luud Schimmelpennink launches the first attempt at a bicycle sharing system in Amsterdam.


  • US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the Highway Safety Act.
  • On February 1, the German TV broadcaster ARD starts broadcasting the series “Der 7. Sinn” [The 7th Sense]. Once a week, in a prime-time slot just before the main news, aspects relating to road safety, rules of conduct and tips for car drivers and adult road users are presented are vividly presented. The last episode, for the time being, is broadcast in December 2005.
  • The first container (sea freight) is put ashore at the overseas port in Bremen
  • First mechanical mechanical anti-lock braking system (ABS), the Dunlop Maxaret, is installed in the Jensen FF.


  • The “Leber Plan”, named for Minister of Transport Georg Leber, introduces the mandatory wearing of safety belts in Germany, although this is not introduced in practice until, in 1974, it becomes mandatory for all new cars and light-duty trucks to be equipped with safety belts and, later, in 1984, fines are introduced for the non-wearing of mandatory safety belts on the front seats of cars.


  • The US Department of Transportation (DOT) launches a programme to develop experimental security vehicles and initiates the international "Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles" (ESV). Today, this conference takes place every two years.
  • In London, the Victoria Line enters service as the world’s first fully automatic, computer-controlled underground railway line.
  • In Vienna, the International Conventions on Road Traffic and Convention on Road Signs and Signals are signed.
  • Development of the Trott helmet by Karl-Heinz Trott (first bicycle helmet for mass sports)


  • The German Road Safety Council (DVR) is founded.
  • First motorbike with a hydraulic disk brake fitted as standard (Honda CB 750 Four).
  • First motorcycle with front hydraulic disc brakes (Honda CB750 Four)


  • Start of the 1970s: Finland and Sweden introduce driving with lights on during the day.
  • The “European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee” (EEVC) is founded as a European counterpart to the American ESV program, focusing on regulations-related reasearch. For example, the EEVC developed, for example, the testing and inspection procedure for ensuring occupant protection in the event of a head-on or side collusion, and the component tests for pedestrian protection.


  • Daimler-Benz AG files a patent for a working model of a driver's airbag.
  • The first headlamps equipped with two-filament halogen bulbs (H4) for low and high beams are installed on vehicles.
  • First international conferences on exchanging research results regarding the development, construction and testing of experimental safety vehicles (ESVs).


  • Introduction of a 100 km/h speed limit for cars on rural roads in Germany. Trucks over a permissible gross weight of 3.5 t with trailer as well as trucks over 7.5 t without trailer may not drive faster than 60 km/h on rural roads.


  • At Hannover Medical School, the BASt launches the “Accident Scene Studies” project (the predecessor of the “German In-Depth Accident Study” [GIDAS]).
  • In his New Year’s address, Finland’s president Urho Kekkonen appeals for improved road safety.
  • Introduction of the 0.8 per mille drink-drive limit for the blood alcohol concentration value.
  • The government’s first road safety program (VSP) is submitted in November to the German Bundestag.


  • A general 90 km/h speed limit applies on rural roads in France.
  • From 1st January, three-point safety belts are mandatory for front seats in newly licensed cars in the Federal Republic of Germany. The seat belt obligation for back seats in all new cars comes into force on 1st May 1979. A warning fine is issued for not wearing the seat belt from 1st August 1984.
  • Introduction of the points system (Section 4 of the German Road Traffic Act (StVG), which is still in use today, as a replacement for the guidelines for the treatment of repeat offendersA general 90 km/h speed limit applies on rural roads in France.


  • The world´s first city toll charge in Singapore.
  • In Japan, Konuske Matsushita, the founder of Panasonic, unveils an e-bike.


  • From 1st January, it is mandatory for motorcyclists in the Federal Republic of Germany to wear a helmet, from mid- 1978 for moped riders too. In the event of infringement, this breach can be punished with a fine from 1st August 1980. From 1st October 1985, scooter riders also have to wear a helmet.


  • Wearing a helmet becomes a legal requirement in Germany for motorcycles > 20 km/h, extended to mopeds and small mopeds in 1978
  • DEKRA publishes its first journal, “Technische Mängel an Kraftfahrzeugen” [Technical Defects on Motor Vehicles].


  • From October onward, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are fitted with ABS as standard from October. The S-Class (W 116) is the first model to feature ABS.
  • 1978 Beginning of the “Child and Traffic” program by the German Road Safety Council.
  • An experimental security vehicle is developed at four German universities (until 1982). This concept is explicitly dedicated to the protection of pedestrians and cyclists.


  • First electronic ABS (Mercedes-Benz S Class and the BMW 7 series).
  • An accademic working group of the Universities of Aachen, Berlin, Stuttgart and Darmstadt starts working on the UNI-CAR research passanger car. The vehicle has a ‘soft face’ across it's entire front end. If the vehicle hits a pedestrian up to a collision speed of 45 km/h, this "soft face" is designed to keep the loads exerted on them below tolerable biomechanical limits.
  • First hydraulic anti-dive systems for individual motorbikes launched by Kawasaki and Garelli; shortly followed by series production by Suzuki and Yamaha.


  • In the 1980s, General Motors equips several of its car models destined for the US market with a black and white head-up display.
  • 1980s First attempts to design the front ends of vehicles in consideration of pedestrian safety.
  • Between 1980 and 1990 more and more reflectors are required on bicycles. Until 1980, only reflectors on the pedals and a small red reflector (cat's eye) at the rear are mandatory. In 1992, a total of eleven reflectors were mandatory at the front, rear and sides.


  • From July onwards, Mercedes-Benz equips a model, the S-Class, with an airbag as standard for the first time.
  • First German car fitted with an airbag (Mercedes-Benz S Class).
  • Combination of driver-airbag and passenger-airbag belt tensioners (Mercedes-Benz S Class).


  • With his study of the “Gelhard-E-Bike”, Egon Gelhard lays the foundations for the pedelec principle.


  • Motorcycle with its in-line 4-cylinder engine mounted lengthways, fuel injection and integrated leg guards (BMW K 100); also the basis for safety motorcycle studies (HUK Verband, DEKRA)
  • The German accident researcher Max Danner publishes his book "Belt or Death" and thus illustrates the benefits of a legal obligation to wear a seat belt, which was heavily disputed among the population at the time.


  • Minister of Transport Werner Dollinger presents the government’s second road safety program.
  • August 1984: Introduction of fines for not complying with the seat belt regulation in Germany.


  • Bergen (Norway) is the first city to introduce a charge to drive into the city centre.
  • Safety motorbike from the Association of German Liability, Accident and Motor Incurers (HUK-Verband).


  • The “driving licence on probation” is introduced in Germany.
  • The EUREKA research project PROMETHEUS (PROgraMme for European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety) conducts the first research into the possibilities afforded by automated driving.


  • First traction control system (TCS - in German ASR) installed in the Mercedes S-Class.
  • After several more or less unsuccessful attempts in various European cities, the car-sharing model has its première in Zurich. Since then this kind of car use has been introduced into many cities, not just in Europe.


  • BMW presents the K100., the first series-production motorbike equipped with ABS.
  • A 90 km/h speed limit is introduced on rural roads in Italy.
  • International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group (IRTAD) founded.


  • The Dangerous Goods Advisor Ordinance is introduced in Germany


  • Introduction of a 50 km/h speed limit in built-up areas and 30 km/h speed zones in France.
  • The THESEUS research project is launched to improve tanker safety
  • “Vision Zero” is applied for the first time in Sweden in the field of road traffic. Basic philosophy: People make mistakes, therefore the traffic system must be designed so that it allows for mistakes without endangering the lives of road users.
  • The BMW 7 Series becomes the first car to be offered with Xenon headlamps, using gas-discharge lamps (Bosch). This is initially only avialable for the low beams.
  • Since 1990 the roundabout has experienced a renaissance as a traffic regulating measure for greater safety on German rural roads. 50 percent of all roundabouts worldwide are located in France.
  • First use of the pedelec principle (Yamaha Power Assist System)


  • Traction control for motorcycles (Honda Pan European)
  • The installation of safety belts in trucks is stipulated in Germany; these must be worn during travel in accordance with Section 21a of the Road Traffic Act
  • The "Controle Technique" vehicle inspection is launched in France. New vehicles need to be inspected for the first time after four years, and then every two years thereafter.


  • The BASt (“Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen” – “Federal Highway Research Institute”) report entitled “Road Traffic Safety Analysis” is published
  • From this year onwards, children in Germany who have not yet reached the age of twelve and are shorter than 150 cm must be transported in a child seat.


  • A navigation system is fitted as standard for the first time (BMW 7 series).


  • "Vision Zero” is applied to road traffic for the first time in Sweden.
  • Robert Bosch GmbH and Mercedes-Benz introduce the Electronic Stability Program ESP. - a braking-based dynamic driver assistence system.
  • The blood alcohol limit is decreased in France to 0.5 g/l.
  • Launch of the world’s first public bicycle hire system in Copenhagen with a pool of 300 bikes.


  • First motorbike to feature a combined braking system in conjunction with ABV and traction control (Honda ST 1100)


  • Euro NCAP publishes crash test results for the first time and introduces pedestrian safety ratings that explicitly include children's safety.
  • Euro NCAP publishes first crash test results.
  • Breakthrough for the ESP with the “elk test” with the A Class.


  • Introduction of the 0.5 per mill limit (without driving ban) in Germany. As of 1st April 2001 there will be driving bans and people will lose their driving licence if they have a blood alcohol level of more than 0.5 per mill.
  • The first sign with a “Black Spot”, which stands for particularly dangerous roads, is placed on Rural Road 2 near Blonie in Poland on 7th September. 20 more signs follow in the same year.
  • 1998 The “European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee Working Group 17” publishes its final report. The focus on pedestrian safety increases considerably.
  • In Paris, the new driverless Métro line 14 opens.
  • First German car with adaptive cruise control (Mercedes-Benz S Class).


  • The EU Regulation on the right to drive enters into force.
  • On October 1, it becomes mandatory for all newly registered coaches to be fitted with safety belts. Where safety belts are prescribed, it is also mandatory to wear them. The wearing of safety belts in coaches and long-distance buses becomes mandatory at EU level in May 2006.
  • Krone launches the sSafeliner, a semitrailer with effective all-round underride guards, developed by Karl-Heinz Schimmelpfennig.


  • With the C1, BMW launches the world's first two-wheeled vehicle to protect its rider with an enclosure (aluminium space frame technology) and seat belt in the event of an accident. This means the C1 can be ridden without a helmet.
  • BMW C1, the first two-wheeled vehicle with an enclosed design to protect the driver


  • From 1st February mobile phones can only be used with a hands-free set in Germany.
  • Combined braking system in conjunction with ABV and adaptive brake force distribution (BMW)
  • Xenon high beams in what are known as bi-xenon headlamps are used for the first time in the Mercedes CL. the same light source is used for both low and high beams.
  • A multi-color head-up display is used for the first time in the Chevrolet Corvette.
  • First series-production vehicle to feature a lane guard system (Nissan Cima).
  • The White Paper “European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide” is published.
  • A road safety program is developed in Austria.


  • DVR launches the “Hats geklickt?” [“all clicked in?”] belt campaign
  • Mercedes introduces the preventative occupant safety system PRE-SAFE in its S-Class.
  • Compulsory lights on during the day is introduced on motorways and in non-built up areas in Italy
  • The ROSEBUD road safety project funded by the EU Commission is launched. A range of methods for assessing the economic impact of road safety measures is compiled and refined.


  • Introduction of the city congestion charge in London.
  • BMW becomes the first European car manufacturer to bring the head-up display to market in its 5 and 6 Series models.
  • Successful pilot test involving rumble strips starts on the A 24 in Brandenburg, Germany
  • Use of radar speed checks in France.
  • The “Euskirchen” traffic barrier with underrun protection is approved, providing better protection for motorcyclists in the event of an impact. Building on the design, DEKRA later develops the "Euskirchen Plus" system on behalf of the German Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt). It further improves the level of prootection, including for the occupants of cars in the event of a high-speed impact.
  • On November 17, the European Parliament and Council of the European Union enact Directive 2003/102/ EC for the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. This stipulates that the front ends of cars must undergo a series of component crash tests to verify that certain biomechanical limits are not exceeded. The impactors used during testing represent the parts of a pedestrian’s body that are most at risk of injury (head, pelvis and leg). Since October 2005, newly certified vehicle types are required to undergo testing in this way.
  • The “Towards Zero Deaths” road safety program is launched in the US state of Minnesota.


  • Duo-lever front wheel drive and electrically adjustable shock absorber (ESA) (BMW K 1200 S)
  • From 1st April infringements of the mobile phone ban behind the wheel are punishable by a fine of EUR 40 and a penalty point in Flensburg.
  • The EU Commission launches the "European Road Safety Charter". The declared objective is to halve the number of traffic fatalities by 2010 compared with 2001 figures.


  • Entry into force of a European Directive on the construction of frontal structures of vehicles for the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users (2003/102/EC). The Directive establishes limit values for the EU type approval of new types of vehicles not exceeding 2.5 tonnes which should not be exceeded in a collision between a vehicle and a pedestrian.
  • 2005 European Directive (2003/102/EC) on the design of the front end of vehicles for the safety of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users becomes effective.


  • The Finnish road safety program “Road Safety 2006-2010” is launched.
  • 2006 First series-produced vehicle with an active hood to protect pedestrians (Jaguar XK).
  • Daimler presents the “Safety Truck” equipped with adaptive cruise control, lane assistant (cornering), Stability Control Assist and the Active Brake Aisst (ABA) automated emergency braking system.
  • From November, vehicles with frontal protection systems (“bull catchers”) must comply with Directive 2005/66/EC.
  • Motorcycle airbag (Honda Gold Wing)


  • The ETAC study on the fundamental causes of traffic accidents involving trucks is published
  • The first DARPA Urban Challenge is held in the USA - an international competition for unmanned vehicles in an urban environment.


  • DEKRA publishes its first Road Safety Report, focusing on cars. Further reports are published in the following years focusing on trucks, motorcycles, pedestrians and cyclists, humans and technology, rural roads, urban mobility, the future based on experience and passenger transportation.
  • 2008 Since April 8, only child seats that have been successfully tested according to ECE 44/03 or higher may be used in Germany.
  • Germany´s first fully automatic, driverless underground railway travels through Nuremberg.
  • Introduction of environmental zones (fine dust sticker) in Germany - first in the cities of Berlin, Cologne and Hanover.


  • Newly registered commercial vehicles in the EU must be equipped with retroreflective contour markings.
  • First brake-by-wire system with electronic brake force control (Honda CBR 600/1000)


  • Guidelines an policies regarding EU road safety (2011-2020)


  • From November 1, 2014, the EU makes it mandatory to install Electronic Vehicle Stability Control systems (EVSC), known as ESP or ESC, for all new road vehicles (from passanger cars through to heavy coaches and trucks as well as thier trailer vehicles). For vehicle models with new type approval, this requirement already comes into force from November 1, 2011
  • The United Nations declares that 2011-2020 will be the “Decade of Action for the Road Safety"
  • From February onward, daytime driving lights become mandatory for all new passanger cars and trucks in the EU.
  • All new vehicle models launched on the market in Europe must be fitted with ESP as standard since 1st November. Mandatory ESP then applies to all new cars from November 2014.


  • Citroën launches the first carsharing programme that exclusively uses electric vehicles in Germany with "Multicity" in Berlin.
  • Volvo introduces the first pedestrian airbag in the V40.
  • Field tests involving long trucks are launched in Germany under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development; the tests address various safety issues
  • All new trucks on the market (N2/3) in the EU must be equipped with special daytime running lights; existing trucks do not have to be retrofitted with these lights


  • For new trucks and coaches, Lane Departure Warning Systems (LDWS) and Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS) become mandatory in the EU- initially only for commercial vehicles with air brakes and permissible gross wight of > 8 t per air-sprung rear axle; from November 1, 2016 they become mandatory for all new vehicles and from November 1, 2018 they become mandatory for all new commercial vehicles with a permissible gross weight > 3.5 t.
  • 2013 ECE/UN Regulation no. 129, which states that child seats must be based on the size of the child and must have an ISOFIX attachment, becomes effective. The manufacturers themselves can determine the size range for which the seat is suitable. This regulation also requires certified child seats to allow children up to 15 months old to be transported only facing rearwards (corresponding to class 0+ of ECE-R 44).
  • The Master’s course “Urban Mobility – Traffic Engineering” is launched for the first time at a German university in Nuremberg in the summer semester.
  • The pedestrian airbag from Volvo wins the "Future" special award at the AutoScout24 portal´s 11st Internet Auto Awards.


  • In May, Internet company Google presents a prototype of a self-driving car.
  • From November onward, ESP becomes mandatory for all new vehicles in the EU.
  • The “Vision Zero Action Plan” is launched in New York City by mayor Bill de Blasio.
  • Daimler presents the “Future Truck 2025”. Thanks to the intellegent "Highway-Pilot" system, the truck is able to drive in automated mode at freeway speeds of up to 85 km/h.
  • Electronic Motorcycle Stability Control (MSC), KTM 1190 Adventure in partnership with Bosch
  • Daimler AG presents the “Mercedes-Benz Future Truck 2025” on the new stretch of the 14 motorway near Magdeburg in July. With the help of the intelligent “Highway Pilot” system, the truck can drive completely autonomously at motorway speeds up to 85 km/h.


  • From July 1, technical testing organizations in Germany are required to use a main inspection adapter during general inspections on cars. This is used for inspecting electronic vehicle components and is designed for the increasingly complex technology installed in cars.
  • From September onward, a section of the A9 freeway in Germany becomes a n offical test track for automated and connected driving.
  • From November 1, newly registered heavy goods vehicles (with a permission of 3.5 t gross weight) and buses with more than eight seats (not including the driver’s seat) in the EU must be equipped with an Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS) and Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS). For newly type-approved vehicles, this equipment already became mandatory on November 1, 2013.


  • End of the field test involving long trucks in Germany


  • 2017 In France, a law requiring children under the age of 12 to wear a helmet on their bicycles becomes effective.


  • The International Transport Forum (ITF) annual summit is held in Leipzig. This annual summit conference of transport ministers is organized by the ITF of the OECD. The focus of this particular summit was “Transport Safety and Security”
  • With its "Europe on the Move" package, the EU sets itself the target of halving the number of traffic fatalities and seriosly injured people on Europe's road in the period 2021 through 2030.


  • E-scooters approved for use on German roads from June 2019. Regulations: Type approval, maximum speed 20 km/h, minimum age 14, no drivers’ license required
  • Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 (the "General Safety Regulation") is adopted, meaning improved safety for vulnerable road users and the use of driver assistance systems gradually become part of type approval regulations.


  • On July 28, the "Act on Autonomous Driving" enters into force in Germany. This enables autonoumous motor vehicles (Level 4) to operate normally on public roads within defined Operational Design Domains.
  • The United Nations declares that 2021 -2030 will be the "Second Decade of Action for Road Safety".


  • From July 6, 2022, all new models of vehicles in the EU must be equipped with an Intelligent Speed Assistant, fatigue warning system, automated emergency braking system, emergency lane guard assistant, reversing assistant, and tire pressure monitoring system (this then applies to all new vehicles from July 2024).